chondral injury or defect involving the lateral fem-oral condyle, and if present, the osteochondral de-fect was graded according to a modified Outerbridge classification system [5]: grade 1, …     - natural history: Sports Injury Bulletin brings together a worldwide panel of experts – including physiotherapists, doctors, researchers and sports scientists. 2017, 119supp-4, M15), pp 743-761.       - Evaluation of cartilage defects in the knee: validity of clinical, magnetic-resonance-imaging and radiological findings compared with arthroscopy Initially, OLT was described and classified as ‘transchondral fractures of the talus’ by Berndt and Harty in 1959(1). 1980; 62A: 646-652. Running is beneficial for general health, and while some runners train to compete in race situations, more runners are recreational who run mainly for fitness... MORE, Chris Mallac investigates the causes, diagnosis, and management of navicular stress fractures in athletes. Some factors do lead to more favorable outcomes in conservative treatment. Most injuries occur due to training errors, such as too much chronic load or increasing acute load too rapidly(1). An Analysis of the Quality of Cartilage Repair Studies. Strengthening of muscles that perform ankle plantarflexion, dorsiflexion, eversion, and inversion. An initial period of non-weight bearing or partial weight-bearing from three weeks to a month. Hepple S, Winson IG, Glew D. Osteochondral lesions of the talus: a revised classification. Developed by renowned radiologists in each specialty, STATdx provides comprehensive decision support you can rely on - Osteochondral Injury, Knee Osseous and Chondral Pathology The authors of the narrative review propose that... MORE, in Diagnose & Treat, Musculoskeletal injuries, Andrew Hamilton looks at new evidence identifying key biomechanical characteristics of running gait that can predict injury in recreational runners, and how to use this knowledge to reduce injury risk. First described by Towne and colleagues in 1970(1), stress fractures of the navicular bone are uncommon in the general population. The combined use of standard and newer magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques makes it possible to evaluate both the morphologic status and the biochemical contents of the repair tissue (,1–,9). Decreased range of motion (this often is a crucial diagnostic feature). Lauge-Hansen classification (ankle injury) Danis-Weber classification (ankle fracture) foot Berndt and Harty classification (osteochondral lesions of the talus) Sanders CT classification (calcaneal fracture) Hawkins classification     - injury is mostly in wt bearing regions of articular cartilage, and usually in medial compartment     - valgus unloading knee brace; - Surgical Treatment Options: … Classification Osteochondral fragments have been well recognized and described for over 250 years, whereas isolated chondral fragment have been reported only in the past 20 years.       - Sensitivity of routine 1.0-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging versus arthroscopy as gold standard in fresh traumatic chondral lesions of the knee in young adults. The original surgical Outerbridge classification is based on size of surface fragmentation and fissuring. Fig. J Bone Joint Surg Am. The majority of classification studies have compared MRI with arthroscopic findings to allow the clinician to classify the severity of the OLT based on MRI findings (see classification below). 4 Figure 24.3 Types of patellar chondral lesions after patellar dislocation. Prevalance and Outcome of Treatment. Non operative treatment is commonly the primary choice of intervention in non-displaced OLT such as type I and II lesions above. The articulation of the talar dome and the trochlear surface (tibia and fibula) supports the weight of the body. 1955; 37-A(6): 1237-43. They usually present later after the soft tissue injury to the ligaments has healed. Why you should plan rehab programs for athletes differently, Conservative management of hip avulsion injuries, Hip avulsion injuries: getting the full management picture, Back pain in ice skaters: How to prevent the downhill spiral, Pectoralis major tendon ruptures part II: Rehabilitation management, Treating dancers as athletes: considerations for dance-related injuries, The role of neuromuscular function in ACL recovery, Tensor fascia latae: unraveling the mysteries, Rehabilitation of soleus muscle injuries in distance runners, Uncommon injuries: sural nerve neuropathy, Fibrillation or fissures in cartilage, not extending to the underlying bone, A loose non-displaced osteochondral fragment, X-ray evidence showed a 4% rate (in a sample of 121 patients) with persistently symptomatic ankles, The incidence of bilateral OLT has shown to be around 10%, In long-term ankle pain patients, OLT shows up in 81% of patients – as a previously undiagnosed pathology, OLT represents only 4% of all osteochondral lesions in the body. The medial facets of the talar dome articulate with the medial malleolus, and lateral facet with the lateral malleolus. fracture, dislocation, sprain or strain). These findings can be summarized as follows: *Signs and symptoms– Typically, an OLT is not detected in the initial post-injury period unless there has been a large displaced osteochondral fragment. IIFibrillation or fissures in cartilage, not extending to the underlying bone Medial OLT (superomedial) is more common than lateral OLT(3,6), however lateral OLT is more often associated with trauma compared with medial OLT (100% versus 64%)(7), and more likely in patients with chronic ankle instability(3). The most widely accepted classification of osteochondral talar injury, introduced by Berndt and Harty [] and based on research on cadavers, is as follows: stage 1 is localized area of subchondral trabecular compression; stage 2 is An ankle sprain due to rotational forces likely causes OLT injuries. Pain under the metatarsal-phalangeal (MTP) joint is common in athletes and a tear or rupture to the plantar plate may be responsible for pain in this area. - Discussion: An experimental investigation in the rabbit. Excision and curettage of the cartilage rim. Stage IIB: Open articular surface lesion with overlying nondisplaced fragment. OCD is classified by the progression of the disease in stages. Each surgery type has its own defined rehabilitation protocol. Fixation of the osteochondral fragment (usually anterolateral fragments).                  - disadvantages: there may be a lack of integration of the repair tissue with the normal adjacent cartilage; J Bone and Joint Surgery. VDisplaced osteochondral fragment. • 2 patients had a recent history of traumatic Telephone: 410.494.4994, Chondral and Osteochondral Injuries of the Knee, articular cartilage injury and potential for repair, Isolated Full Thickness Chondral Injuries. About 1 in 5,000 babies are born with some type of skeletal dysplasia. The advent of new procedures for repairing cartilage in knee and ankle joints has increased the need for accurate noninvasive methods to objectively evaluate the success of repair. MRI is the most sensitive imaging for OLT with a sensitivity of 96%. Chris Mallac explores talar dome injury in athletes; how do they occur and how can they be treated? Baring soles: Why athletes should ditch the shoes for... Running injuries: the art and science of prediction, Navicular stress fracture: a high-impact risk for young athletes, Fractures of the Proximal 5th Metatarsal in Athletes. 1980; 62(1): 97-102. 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